Robert Mercer, a computational linguist, joins Renaissance Technologies (“RenTec”), a Long Island hedge fund where “Dozens of math and physics Ph.D.s.. [use] computers to crunch market data and spot patterns a human trader would overlook… [One writer calls it] ‘perhaps the most successful hedge fund ever.’” (Bloomberg)
Nigel Oakes launches Strategic Communication Laboratories (“SCL”), the eventual parent company of Cambridge Analytica, arguing “that traditional advertising was incapable of effecting the type of mass opinion shifts necessary for social change. Instead, he marshaled scholarly research, much of it from psychologists and anthropologists filtered through the Behavioral Dynamics Institute, an affiliated non-profit that Oakes had established as ‘a research facility for understanding group behaviour.’”
Mercer’s middle daughter Rebekah graduates from Stanford with a master’s degree in management science and engineering. While at Stanford, she met her future husband, Sylvain Mirochnikoff, a native of France.
August 18, 1999
Breitbart Holdings Inc. incorporated in California. Still active as of November 2016.
RenTec’s flagship fund, Medallion, “made a killing in the volatile oil futures market]”:
Simons explains his firm’s approach as the financial econometrics equivalent of blocking and tackling. ‘We search through historical data looking for anomalous patterns that we would not expect to occur at random. Our scheme is to analyze data and markets to test for statistical significance and consistency over time,’ says Simons. “Once we find one, we test it for statistical significance and consistency over time. After we determine its validity, we ask, ‘Does this correspond to some aspect of behavior that seems reasonable?’”
Rebekah Mercer works “as a trader for a New York financial firm before retiring to raise her four children.” [Heritage Foundation]
“SCL… relaunched as a specialist in psychological warfare,’ designing communication that could be deployed to demotivate military opponents or influence civilian populations in conflict areas.” [Bloomberg]
Rebekah Mercer and Mirochnikoff buy a unit in an Upper West Side Trump apartment building. [TheRealDeal]
Mirochnikoff appears to be the only person in the United States with his last name, or using that particular spelling. Though it is a name found in Russia and the former Soviet republics, he has no other publicly known connections to the former Soviet Union. Alternative spellings include Miroshnikov (possibly the most common transliteration) and Miroshnikova. For example:
“The French Interior Ministry is also pursuing a criminal investigation into Mr Pugachev’s claims a senior official from the [Russia’s Deposit Insurance Agency], Valery Miroshnikov, threatened his life and attempted to extort $350m from him. Mr Miroshnikov denies the claims.” [Financial Times]
In early 2012, a Kazakh “oil sector official, Vladimir Mirochnikov (first deputy director general of the Exploration and Production branch of the national company Kazmounaïgaz),” was forced to pay a significant fine or judgment for “abuse of power.”
Mercer becomes co-CEO of Renaissance.
Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC.
Robert Mercer’s daughter Rebekah Mercer and her husband buy six adjoining units at Heritage at Trump Place for $28 million. [TheRealDeal]
The U.S. Tax Court [issues two rulings] in favor of the IRS with regard to tax treatment of stock-lending agreements. These practices are conceptually related to tax strategies Renaissance had begun using years before.
September 25, 2010
“[A group calling itself Concerned Taxpayers of America started running television spots] () — a substantial ad buy of $86,000 — [against Oregon congressman Pete] DeFazio…
In DeFazio’s case, it appears the new organization is attempting to test whether an incumbent who was previously considered safe might be vulnerable.
With the political winds blowing as strong as they are against the Democrats this year, DeFazio acknowledged this might not be such a bad bet. ‘I have a marginal district, and I’ve made it look easy,’ he said. ‘This is an unusual year, so perhaps they see an angle.’”
“Eight months after Citizens United, Mercer funded one of the country’s first super-PACs to support Robinson’s bid in Oregon.” [Bloomberg]
Jane Mayer reports Mercer gave $300,000 to Robinson in part because his opponent, Pete DeFazio, supported taxing stock trades. [Dark Money]
According to DeFazio, the Super PAC, Concerned Taxpayers for America, used a false address.
October 15, 2010
The IRS releases a memorandum attacking “Hedge Fund Basket Option Contracts,” which it states are not true options for tax purposes. It will emerge in 2013 that these are a key tool for increasing Renaissance’s profits, in use since at least 2003.
Mercer is [quoted in the book >More Money Than God]: “The signals that we have been trading without interruption for fifteen years make no sense… Otherwise someone else would have found them.”
Mercer funds the fanning of the “Ground Zero mosque” controversy.
Mercer begins investing in Breitbart.
August 7, 2011
Breitbart Holdings Inc. [files federal trademark registration for BREITBART mark] ().
August 9, 2011
Breitbart News Network, LLC organized in Delaware.
The IRS releases another report] assailing disparate tax treatment of derivatives.
A June 2011 donation to anti-immigration Iowa Rep. Steve King’s primary campaign apparently made by Mirochnikoff is returned to him with the notation “incorrect attribution by committee.” If Mirochnikoff was not a US citizen, the donation might have violated the law. His employment was originally listed as “Self — real estate,” despite his longstanding employment by Morgan Stanley.
“The IRS challenged the treatment] of some of Mercer’s firm Renaissance Technologies’ [“basket options”] trades and demanded more taxes …. The dispute ended up in an internal IRS appeals process that can take many years to resolve.”
March 1, 2012
Andrew Breitbart [dies] (). “Andrew [reportedly collected almost $10 million in venture capital funding from two big donors] a few months before his death, but it’s not clear what happened to that money…”
Mercer emerged as a major financial force in conservative politics just as it became an ideal sphere in which to indulge his pursuit for interesting technical programs…. SCL Elections spun off its American operations into a district entity, Cambridge Analytica….
[A]round 2013… the [Mercer] family [became the largest investor in Cambridge Analytica] (), the American spinoff of the British data analysis firm Strategic Communications Laboratories Group, or SCL. Bannon played a role in brokering that deal, according to two operatives familiar with it, and the company’s officials, with help from Bekah Mercer, began presenting Cambridge Analytica’s product as superior to both a Koch-backed data firm and that of an RNC-blessed data outfit.
Renaissance sought to convert profit from Medallion’s rapid trading into long-term capital gains, said the people, who spoke on condition of anonymity because the dispute hasn’t been made public. The top federal rate on long-term gains is about half that on short-term.
Versions of the strategy, which involved shifting ownership of Medallion’s portfolio to banks including London-based Barclays Plc, were used for most of the past decade, one person with knowledge of the matter said….
The disagreement between the IRS and Renaissance traces back at least to 2010, when the IRS publicly criticized an unnamed hedge fund for using the strategy. It was referring to Medallion, the people said….
[F]iguring out ways to convert a hedge fund’s trading profits into income taxed at the lower, long-term gains rate is one of the holy grails for tax planners…
After the IRS published the 2010 memo criticizing the technique, Deutsche Bank stopped offering Renaissance versions of the option trades that had tax-reducing benefits, two of the people said….
Some of the people with knowledge of the option trades said they had at least one purpose unrelated to tax savings: they allowed Medallion to borrow more money from its banks than it otherwise could….
Tax planners started using derivatives to convert hedge funds’ short-term gains to long-term gains in the 1990s, said Alex Raskolnikov, a tax professor at Columbia University Law School. Congress tried to close the loophole in 1999…
One commentator praising RenTech’s “basket option” scheme to recharacterize long-term capital gains as short-term gains says: “With the diminishing returns of typical strategies, tax arbitrage, regulatory arbitrage, lobbying etc seems like a new frontier of investing!”
July 25, 2013
According to Bloomberg, in 2013, Cambridge Analytica’s “only American client was the Middle Resolution PAC, a Virginia conservative group then working to elect Ken Cuccinelli as the state’s governor, an unpaid pilot project to show how SCL might work.”
In fact, SCL Social Ltd., which apparently had not yet spun off Cambridge Analytica, was paid $100,000 by the Virginia state (not federal) Middle Resolution PAC for “voter research.”
Mercer is sued for wage violations by domestic contractors.
December 31, 2013
Cambridge Analytica LLC is formed in Delaware.
Mercer donates $500,000 to a Tea Party group suing the IRS.
“Cruz laid the groundwork for his run… at a private meeting [with strategists and donors including] Robert and Rebekah Mercer…. A pair of researchers hired by Mercer and [Lee] Hanley presented some intriguing findings. ‘The country was ready for a Mr. Smith Goes to Washington figure — they used the phrase “Trump-like,’ Neugebauer says — meaning that an outsider candidate should have a good shot in 2016.” [Bloomberg]
Cambridge Analytica CEO Alexander Nix tells Yahoo News that “his database has between 4,000 and 5,000 data points on every registered voter in the U.S. — from where you shop to websites you’ve visited, cars you’ve driven, magazines you’ve subscribed to and your all-important voter registration history.”
Nix explains that the firm has hundreds of thousands of psychological profiles of US voters using the “big five” personality trait inventory, which it then uses to microtarget ads.
John Bolton’s Super PAC is also a Cambridge client.
In five different ads, Bolton appeals to people with different personality types and tries to persuade them to support the Senate candidates he backed. People high in neuroticism — who tend to be more prone to fear, anxiety and depression — were served up an ad with Bolton abruptly intoning, “Terrorists love porous borders,” as images of Islamic State fighters riding around in a truck are juxtaposed with footage of the U.S.-Mexico border. A large explosion goes off halfway through the ad, and then Bolton appears again, endorsing Tom Cotton for U.S. Senate.
Meanwhile, a different ad targeted people high in agreeableness, who value social harmony and kindness. In this ad, Bolton says he “worked together” with policy leaders on “both sides of the aisle.” He then urges voters to support Sen. Thom Tillis to create a “safer world for our children.” Tillis’ opponent is neither mentioned nor maligned. [Yahoo]
Adam Schaeffer, a Republican data analyst whose firm worked for Middle Resolution PAC in Virginia, writes an article for Politico describing a controlled trial in which an anti-Trump ad from the Cruz campaign decrying Trump’s “New York values” actually increased support for Trump by 33 points among blue-collar male voters, concluding, “If the anti-Trump forces keep it up, they might just succeed in nominating Donald J. Trump.”
Cambridge Analytica [works on campaigns] for Thom Tillis’s Senate race (hired by Paul Shumaker) and for Bolton’s Super PAC in advance of an intended presidential run by Bolton.
had one objective — to convince voters to support Republican candidates based on national-security issues… [It] advised Bolton’s team on the design of six ads, thirty seconds each, with wildly different creative approaches. One ad, targeted at voters modeled to be conscientious and agreeable, was set to upbeat music and showed Bolton standing outdoors on a bright day, matter-of-factly addressing the need to ‘leave a stronger, safer America for our children.’ In another, aimed at neurotics, the diplomat was invisible — replaced by storm clouds, foreigners burning American flags, and an admonition to vote like your life depends on it, intoned by an disembodied narrator….
Shumaker says that dynamic process allowed Tillis’s campaign to identify a sizable cluster of North Carolinians who prioritized foreign affairs — which encouraged Tillis to shift the conversation from state-level debates over education policy to charges that incumbent Kay Hagan had failed to take ISIS’s rise seriously.
Renaissance VP and Counsel testify at hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Investigations on “Abuse of Structured Financial Products” .
Breitbart announces it is being audited by the IRS.
October 3, 2014
“Breitbart News AT, LLC” organized in Delaware.
October 9, 2014
Breitbart Holdings Inc. files federal trademark registration for BREITBART NEWS mark. Application lists first use date as March 5, 2012, 5 days after Andrew Breitbart’s death.
March 23, 2015
Rebekah Mercer holds fundraiser for Cruz on same day Cruz launches campaign. When Cruz personnel criticize Cambridge Analytica, tensions flare:
At the fundraiser, Bekah Mercer fumed about campaign manager Jeff Roe, who had chewed out Cambridge’s technicians for missing deadlines in building the campaign’s website, according to a person present at the fundraiser.
Mercer and Bannon continued to clash with Cruz aides… in a series of conference calls about Cambridge’s performance and its billing practices, according to two people with knowledge of the conversations. Mercer was ‘infuriated’ by a campaign official’s contention that rather than providing some secret sauce, Cambridge Analytica was merely using information that was publicly available, according to the people.
Cambridge Analytica is owned at least in part by the family of the press-shy New York hedge fund manager Robert Mercer, multiple sources confirmed to POLITICO….
Cruz spokesman Rick Tyler said Chris Wilson, the campaign’s director of research and analytics, is using Cambridge Analytica to build models that identify and sort persuadable voters in early primary states by six key personality types, which will be used to target the campaign’s outreach.
‘I’ve seen their product, and it’s better than anything I’ve ever seen,’ said Tyler….
[N]early 93 percent of the $2.6 million Cambridge Analytica has received in traceable federal payments has come from committees to which the Mercers donated generously.
Breitbart.com, which boasts of having 18.7 million unique users per month — almost all of them conservative firebrands — is funded in part by New York hedge fund manager Robert Mercer… Breitbart executive chairman Steve Bannon has worked with Mercer on political projects including Cambridge Analytica, according to conservative finance operatives. They describe Bannon as something of a gatekeeper for Mercer, a New York hedge fund magnate who keeps a close circle of associates and has not publicly advocated for Cruz… Breitbart has also showered favorable coverage on the likes of Walker, Ben Carson, Mike Huckabee and, in the past couple of weeks, Donald Trump.
One commentator describes [RenTec’s basic strategies] as “machine learning, new/unique datasets, focus on costs/execution.”
George Will provides an overview of Cruz’s data-driven strategy:
Nonvoting whites, especially those without college experience, are among Cruz’s principal targets. His geniality toward Donald Trump reflects the Cruz campaign’s estimate that perhaps one-third of the Trumpkins have not voted in recent elections. If so, Trump is doing downfield blocking for Cruz, beginning the expansion of the 2016 electorate by energizing people whose alienation from politics has made them nonvoters….
Cruz aims to leaven the electorate with people who, disappointed by economic stagnation and discouraging cultural trends for which Republican nominees seemed to have no answers, have been dormant during recent cycles….
Whites without college experience include disproportionate numbers of nonvoters whose abstention in 2012, according to the Market Research Foundation, produced Obama’s Electoral College victory.
One of SCL/CA’s advantages comes in hiring British data scientists without personal knowledge or investment in U.S. politics, Bloomberg reports:
SCL began hiring Ph.Ds, many of them from the University of Cambridge, from fields where manipulating large data sets is routine. As a result, it is probably the only political consulting firm whose employee bios delineate sub-disciplines within the hard sciences, separating those who studied astrophysics from theoretical physics, condensed matter physics, theoretical solid state physics. [Very few of them have ever before stepped near a campaign office, and they demonstrate little familiarity with political life in the United States.] () In casual conversations about the subject, Cambridge Analytica employees speak of ‘the Tea Party’ and ‘conservative Christians’ as distant oddities, in a manner typical of educated Europeans.
“Mercer and Cruz share an interest in translating big data insights into aggressive campaign tactics, including micro-targeting voters based on psychographic analyses of their attitudes and interests… Big picture: Mercer’s grand political algorithm — if there is one — may never reach a President Ted Cruz result, but it doesn’t have to in order to beat the market.” [Ozy.com]
Ted Cruz’s “‘Cruz Crew’ mobile app is designed to gather detailed information from its users’ phones— tracking their physical movements and mining the names and contact information for friends who might want nothing to do with his campaign.
That information and more is then fed into a vast database containing details about nearly every adult in the United States to build psychological profiles that target individual voters with uncanny accuracy….
Cambridge has a massive 10 terabyte database — enough to fill more than 2,100 DVDs — that contains as many as 5,000 biographical details about the 240 million Americans of voting age…
Cambridge helped differentiate Cruz by identifying automated red light cameras as an issue of importance to Iowa residents upset with government intrusion. Potential voters living near the red light cameras were sent direct messages saying Cruz was against their use….
Cambridge’s database combines government and commercial data sets such as voter rolls and lists of people who liked certain Facebook posts, along with consumer data from grocery chains and other clients that can provide a voter’s preferred brand of toothpaste or whether he clips coupons….
Cambridge said it operates behind firewalls on its computer servers to secure its data and follows all applicable U.S. laws. Cambridge runs its operations out of the U.S.; they would be illegal in Europe under stricter privacy laws there.
April 1, 2016
Renaissance launches the Renaissance Institutional Diversified Global Equities Fund and Renaissance Institutional Diversified Global Equities Onshore Fund L.P..
Cambridge Analytica was hired by pro-Brexit group Leave.EU in the run-up to the June referendum to target Brits who usually don’t vote in elections or referenda…. [A] polling analyst… believes one of the key reasons Leave won the EU referendum was the high turnout…. Crucially, the majority of these new voters were persuaded to back Brexit. That’s one of the reasons why most pollsters were wrong in their predictions — their opinion polls didn’t pick up people who didn’t vote in 2015.
It is unclear how much of a part Cambridge Analytica’s work played in this phenomenon — but it certainly played a part. Trump will be hoping the British company can have a similar impact on the US electorate.
“”There’s a lot of pressure to not speak up against this organization,” said one consultant regarding Cambridge Analytica, citing the threat of alienating a magnanimous Republican donor. “You wouldn’t want to take on the Rickets and you wouldn’t want to take on the Mercers,” he continued, alluding to prolific conservative donors Marlene and Joe Ricketts, who also own the Chicago Cubs. Calling Cambridge Analytica “very litigious,” the consultant added, “Everyone knows what’s happening but no one talks about it because it’s not worth it.”…
Spinning prominent political work into corporate clientele gold is not exactly a new concept, particularly in the political data sector, where talent and analytics skills are highly appealing to brands attracted by the promise of quants wielding databases of targetable consumer segments….
Presidential politics gets your foot in the door of the corporate world, said one Republican consultant. ‘I don’t think it’s a bad strategy.’
A Cruz campaign consultant claimed Cambridge was employing its monthly retainer fees to develop the very database that was a main product it believed had already been fully built…. By the Feb. 20 South Carolina primary the campaign stopped using Cambridge’s data. [AdAge]
August 16, 2016
Gov. Scott Walker halfheartedly campaigns for Trump for the first time.
August 17, 2016
Former Breitbart editor Ben Shapiro [alleges]:
I have been reliably informed by sources associated with the pro-Cruz super PAC that for months, as Bannon was using Breitbart News to promote Trump, the Mercers were defending Bannon’s neutrality to other Cruz supporters worried about Breitbart’s dishonest coverage about Cruz.
September 23, 2016
Ted Cruz retracts his non-endorsement and endorses Trump.
September 29, 2016
Yet among Republicans, there is still scarce agreement about what Bob and Rebekah Mercer are after. Some observers speculate that the pair, who through a spokesman declined to comment for this story, are driven by a thirst for power or access….
Others say they’re spurred by party loyalty, or ideology, or antipathy to Clinton. One suggests the Mercers’ real interest was making money on Cambridge. Still another theorizes the alliance with the candidate and Bannon signals interest in backing a prospective Trump-branded television network, which some GOP observers believe is in the offing if the candidate loses.
October 12, 2016
“An agreement has been announced] today [October 12] between comScore and Cambridge Analytica that will allow comScore’s information from television to be used in television campaign strategies both or political and commercial advertising…. The data will be used by clients to send commercial messages for more effective TV advertising campaigns.”
The firm says it can predict how most people will vote by using up to 5,000 pieces of data about every American adult, combined with the result of hundreds of thousands of personality and behavioral surveys, to identify millions of voters who are most open to being persuaded to support Trump….
The Clinton campaign, which has a far larger team of data scientists, rejects such psychological profiling. Its analytics chief, Elan Kriegel, said he relies more on ‘bread and butter’ information such as voter history….
Stephen Bannon, the Trump campaign’s chief executive, sits on the Cambridge Analytica board, according to a Bloomberg News report. Hedge-fund billionaire Robert Mercer, the top donor to a pro-Trump political action committee, reportedly is the majority owner….
A key to its strategy is the fact that U.S. laws regarding the release of personal information are more lax than in some other countries, enabling it to mine far more data here.
October 11, 2016
“[Trump] plans to renew the nationalist themes that built his base and amplify his no-holds-barred attacks against Hillary Clinton to try to depress Democratic voter turnout..."
October 14, 2016
“House Speaker Paul Ryan, Sen. Ron Johnson and Gov. Scott Walker are all skipping [Trump’s] Monday events in Green Bay and outside of Milwaukee….
The latest Marquette University Law School poll released this week showed Democrat Hillary Clinton ahead of Trump by 7 points in Wisconsin[.]”
October 16, 2016
Renaissance Technologies LLC… which relies on closely held computer models and algorithms, has staged a comeback after an uneven spell, with its funds posting market-beating gains for more than the past year…. Renaissance attracted more than $7 billion in new investor money over the past year from wealthy clients of UBS Group AG, Citigroup Inc. and others, according to people close to the matter….
Renaissance’s models rely on signals from a range of inputs, including technical factors related to stock-price movements, helping the firm avoid some issues slowing traditional investors, clients say.
October 29, 2016
“Almost every public and private metric suggests Trump is headed for a loss, possibly an epic one…. Yet even as he nears the end of his presidential run, his team is sowing the seeds of a new enterprise with a direct marketing effort that they insist could still shock the world on Election Day.
‘Trump is a builder,’ says Bannon, in a rare interview. ‘And what he’s built is the underlying apparatus for a political movement that’s going to propel us to victory on Nov. 8 and dominate Republican politics after that’….
Lately he’s sounded less like a candidate seeking to persuade moderates and swing voters and more like the far-right populist leaders who’ve risen throughout Europe….
[Trump’s internal polls] results mirror those of the more reliable public forecasters… [The states they are most concerned about are] Florida… Ohio, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Georgia….
A South Park-style animation… of Clinton delivering the ‘super predator’ line… will be delivered to certain African American voters through Facebook ‘dark posts’ — nonpublic posts whose viewership the campaign controls so that, as Parscale puts it, ‘only the people we want to see it, see it.’ The aim is to depress Clinton’s vote total.
[H]is team is spending $70 million a month, much of it to cultivate a universe of millions of fervent Trump supporters, many of them reached through Facebook…. ‘I wouldn’t have come aboard, even for Trump, if I hadn’t known they were building this massive Facebook and data engine,’ says Bannon. ‘Facebook is what propelled Breitbart to a massive audience. We know its power.’
Cambridge Analytica’s statistical models isolated likely supporters whom Parscale bombarded with ads on Facebook…
‘Trump supporters really don’t have a media outlet where they feel they’re represented…. What we found is that our people have organized incredibly well on the web. Reddit literally had to change their rules because it was becoming all Trump.’”
In other words, Trump had two data analysis operations. Kushner’s “Project Alamo” was a second operation that was in effect and producing conventional (and wrong) results. And at least two large-scale data sources — not only Cambridge Analytica but the RNC. The RNC required Trump to give up 80 percent of fundraising revenue to get access to their data.
And there is a symbiotic relationship between Trump’s “well-organized web supporters” and Facebook.
October 31, 2016
The New Yorker asks: WHY IS DONALD TRUMP IN MICHIGAN AND WISCONSIN?
The big challenge facing the Republican candidate is that, in recent elections, as many as half of all white working-class voters haven’t voted at all…. If these voters could be persuaded to show up at the polls in large numbers — much larger than the pollsters are expecting — it could make a big difference, especially in places where there are a lot of them….
In eight [battleground] states… the proportion of non-college-educated white voters would be thirty-five per cent or more: Arizona, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
Trump will go on to win six of these eight states.
November 1, 2016
[Trump] has surfaced recently in [New Mexico, Colorado, Michigan and Wisconsin in hopes of capitalizing on a recent fall in Hillary Clinton’s poll numbers….
Clinton has not campaigned [in Wisconsin] herself since clinching her party’s nomination, but she now plans to visit Michigan on Friday.
Walker and Johnson begin to campaign for Trump — Walker for the second time ever, Johnson for the first.
November 4, 2016
Using a survey usually placed on social media, the company invites users to take a personality test. The results of that test help the company group people under personality types measuring openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Data-crunchers then combine individuals’ personalities with their voting history, where they shop, what they buy — even what they watch on television. The personality test doesn’t indicate that this is the purpose of the test, so it’s likely those who fill it out are unaware of how it will be matched with other data freely available or purchasable from cable and credit card companies.
November 15, 2016
[T]he remarkably successful, utterly untrustworthy site Ending the Fed... was responsible for four of the top 10 false election stories identified in the analysis…
Ending the Fed is a relatively new website. The domain endingthefed.com was only registered in in March. Yet according to BuzzFeed News’ analysis, its top election content received more Facebook engagement than stories from the Washington Post and New York Times….
A similar spike occurred for Conservative State, a site that was only registered in September….
November 16, 2016
On Clinton’s failure to GOTV in Michigan and Wisconsin: “The more universal explanation, however, was that the data that informed many of the strategic decisions was simply wrong."
Source : https://medium.com/@FadeResearch/cambridge-analytica-breitbart-mercer-trump-a-comprehensive-timeline-cbb0334bbbee