Trans Women Have Higher Heart Health Risk, Study Finds

Transgender women on hormone therapy may be at a higher risk for cardiovascular problems, such as stroke, blood clots and heart attack, researchers reported Monday.

The study was done by reviewing eight years of medical records of nearly 5,000 transgender patients in the Kaiser Health system, and looked at patients over the age of 18 who took hormones for gender transition. Over 97,000 cisgender patients — people whose sex assigned at birth matches their gender identity — with similar age and health characteristics were studied for comparison.

“My concern is that doctors who are inclined to deny hormone therapy will use this study as a reason to do so.”

“This is the largest study of the health of transgender individuals on hormone therapy ever done,” Dr. Darios Getahun, an author of the study and research scientist at Kaiser Permanente, told NBC News. “Doctors and patients need to be aware of the possibility for increased health risks for transgender women.”

The study found that transgender women, who are assigned the male sex at birth, were twice as likely as cisgender men or women to have the blood clot condition venous thromboembolism. Transgender women on hormone therapy were also found to be 80 to 90 percent more likely to have stroke or a heart attack than cisgender women.

Transgender men on hormone therapy, however, were not found to have a higher risk.

The review of the records has limitations and isn’t enough to establish a direct cause and effect, Getahun cautioned. He noted that the study, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, only had access to the patients’ records at Kaiser, so any outside medications couldn’t be accounted for. In addition, the dosage and type of hormones administered were unknown.



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A traditional study to determine direct cause and effect usually involves one group receiving a placebo, while the other group takes the real medicine. But giving a patient in transition fake hormones without his or her knowledge or consent is ethically prohibitive.

“For now, this study is the best measure we have of the risk, and it’s much better than what we’ve had before,” Getahun said.

In the past, studies measuring cardiovascular effects of estrogen therapy have been done on menopausal women and applied to transgender women. But the study of transgender women found significant differences, particularly for long-term use. Menopausal studies cited by the Kaiser researchers showed risks of cardiovascular illness declining over long-term use, but the Kaiser study found that risk increased for transgender women over time.

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Study finds health risks for transgender women on hormone therapy
Sex hormones for gender transitioning hike risk of stroke, heart attacks, study finds
Transgender people taking hormone therapy may be at TWICE the risk of heart attack or stroke as cis people, study finds